Journal articles

Anwar, M. A. and Graham, M. (2020) Between a Rock and a Hard Place: Freedom, Flexibility, Precarity, and Vulnerability in the Gig Economy in Africa, Competition and Change.

Anwar, M. A. and Graham, M. (2020) Digital Labour at Economic Margins: African Workers and the Global Information Economy, Review of African Political Economy. 47(163), 95-105. (pre-publication version here)

Wahome, M. and Graham, M. (2020) Spatially shaped imaginaries of the digital economy, Information, Communication & Society. 23(8), 1123-1138.

Anwar, M. A. and Graham, M. (2019) Economic and social upgrading in call and contact centers: evidence from South Africa, African Geographical Review, Special issue on Geographies of Southern Africa. 23(8), 209-226.

Dittus, M. and Graham, M. (2019) Mapping Wikipedia’s Geolinguistic Contours, Digital Culture and Society. 5(1), 147-164.

Graham, M. and Anwar, M. A. (2019) The global gig economy: towards a planetary labour market?, First Monday. 24(4).

Ojanperä, S., Graham, M, and Zook, M. (2019) The Digital Knowledge Economy Index: Mapping Content Production. The Journal of Development Studies. 55(12), 2626-2643.

Zook, M. and Graham, M. (2018) Hacking Code/Space: Confounding the Code of Global Capitalism. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers. 43(3), 390-404.

Wood, A., Graham, M., Lehdonvirta, V., and Hjorth, I. 2018. Good Gig, Bad Gig: Autonomy and algorithmic Control in the Global Gig EconomyWork, Employment and Society. 33(1), 56-75.

Wood, A., Lehdonvirta, V., and Graham, M. (2018) Workers of the Internet unite? Online freelancer organisation among remote gig economy workers in six Asian and African countries. New Technology, Work and Employment. 33(2), 95-112. 10.1111/ntwe.12112. (pre-publication version here)

Graham, M. and Woodcock, J. (2018) Towards a Fairer Platform Economy: Introducing the Fairwork Foundation. Alternate Routes. 29, 242-253.

Lehdonvirta, V., Kässi, O., Hjorth, I., Barnard, H., and Graham, M. (2018) The Global Platform Economy: A New Offshoring Institution Enabling Emerging-Economy MicroprovidersJournal of Management. 45(2), 567-599.

Graham, M., Ojanperä, S., Anwar, M. A. and Friederici, N. (2017) Digital Connectivity and African Knowledge Economies. Questions de Communication. 32, 345-360. (pre-publication version here)

Foster, C., Graham, M., Mann, L., Waema, T., and Friederici, N. (2017) Digital Control in Value Chains: Challenges of Connectivity for East African FirmsEconomic Geography. 94(1), 68-86.

Ojanperä, S., Graham, M., Straumann, R. K., De Sabbata, S., & Zook, M. (2017) Engagement in the knowledge economy: Regional patterns of content creation with a focus on sub-Saharan Africa. Information Technologies & International Development. 13, 33–51.

Friederici, N., Ojanperä, S., and Graham, M. (2017) The Impact of Connectivity in Africa: Grand Visions and the Mirage of Inclusive Digital Development. Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries. 79(2), 1-20.

Ballatore, A., Graham, M., and Sen, S. (2017) Digital Hegemonies: The Localness of Search Engine ResultsAnnals of the American Association of Geographers. 107(5), 1194-1215.

Graham, M., Hjorth, I., Lehdonvirta, V. (2017) Digital labour and development: impacts of global digital labour platforms and the gig economy on worker livelihoods. Transfer: European Review of Labour and Research. 23(2), 135-162.

Foster, C. and Graham, M. (2017) Reconsidering the Role of the Digital in Global Production Networks. Global Networks. 17(1), 68-88

Straumann, R. K., Graham, M. (2016) Who isn’t online? Mapping the ‘Archipelago of Disconnection.’ Regional Studies, Regional Science. 3(1), 96-98.

Ojanperä, S. (2017) Book Review: Clarke, D. 2012: Africa’s Future: Darkness to Destiny. Progress in Development Studies. 17(1), 92–94.


Ojanperä, S, O’Clery, N, and Graham, M. (2018) Data science, artificial intelligence and the futures of work. London: The Alan Turing Institute.


Friederici, N., Wahome, M., and Graham, M. (2020). Digital Entrepreneurship in Africa: How a Continent is Escaping Silicon Valley’s Long Shadow. Cambridge MA: MIT Press.

Woodcock, J. and Graham, M. (2019). The Gig Economy: A Critical Introduction. Cambridge: Polity.

Graham, M. (Ed.) (2019). Digital Economies at Global Margins. Boston: MIT Press.

Graham, M. and Dutton, W. H. (Eds.) (2019). Society and the Internet: How Networks of Information and Communication are Changing Our Lives (Second Edition). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Book chapters

Graham, M. (2019). There are rights ‘in’ cyberspace. In B. Wagner, M.C. Kettermann, and K. Vieth (Eds.) Research Handbook on Human Rights and Digital Technology (pp. 24-32). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.

Dittus, M., Ojanperä, S., and Graham, M. (2019). There is no ‘there’ on the Internet. In M. C. Ketteman, and S. Dreyer (Eds). Busted! The Truth About the 50 Most Common Internet Myths (pp. 310-318). Hamburg: Verlag Hans-Bredow-Institut.

Graham, M., Ojanperä, S., and Dittus, M. (2019). Internet Geographies: Data Shadows and Digital Divisions of Labour. In M. Graham, and W. Dutton (Eds). Society and the Internet; How Networks of Information and Communication Are Changing Our Lives (pp. 310-318). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Foster, C., Graham, M., Hjorth, I., and Mwolo Waema, T. (2019). Making sense of digital disintermediation and Development: The Case of Mombasa Tea Auction. In M. Graham (Ed.) Digital Economies at Global Margins (pp. 55-78). Boston: MIT Press.

Friederici, N. (2019). Hope and Hype in Africa’s Digital Economy: The Rise of Innovation Hubs. In M. Graham (Ed.) Digital Economies at Global Margins (pp. 193-222). Boston: MIT Press.

Graham, M., Hjorth, I., and Lehdonvirta, V. (2019). Digital Labour and Development: Impacts of Global Digital Labour Platforms and the Gig Economy on Worker Livelihoods. In M. Graham (Ed.) Digital Economies at Global Margins (pp. 269-294). Boston: MIT Press.

Friederici, N. (2019). Innovation Hubs in Africa: What Do They Really Do For Digital Entrepreneurs? In N. Taura, E. Bolat, and N. Madichie (Eds.), Digital Entrepreneurship in Sub-Saharan Africa: Many are called, few are chosen. Palgrave Macmillan.

Graham, M., De Sabbata, S., Straumann, R., and Ojanperä, S. (2018). Uneven Digital Geographies…and Why They Matter. In Kollektiv Orangotango+ (Eds). This is Not an Atlas (pp. 310-318). Bielefeld: transcript Verlag.

Graham, M. and Anwar, M.A. (2018). Two Models for a Fairer Sharing Economy. In J. Nestor, F. Michèle, and J. Infranca (Eds.), The Cambridge Handbook of the Law of the Sharing Economy (pp. 328-340). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Shaw, J., and Graham, M. (2018). Ein Informationelles Recht auf Stadt. In Bauriedl, S., and Strüver, A. (Eds). Smart City – Kritische Perspektiven auf die Digitalisierung in Städten (pp. 177-204). Bielefeld: transcript Verlag.

Graham, M. and Anwar, M.A. 2018. Digital Labour In: Digital Geographies Ash, J., Kitchin, R. and Leszczynski, A. (eds.). Sage. London.

Graham, M. 2018. Communications. In The Times Comprehensive Atlas of the World (pp. 28-29). London: Times Books.

Anwar, M. A. (2018) Connecting South Africa: ICTs, uneven development and poverty debates. In J. Knight and C. Rogerson. (Eds.) The geography of South Africa – contemporary changes and new directions (pp. 261-267). Springer, Cham.

Graham, M. 2018. The Virtual Palimpsest of the Global City Network. In X. Ren and R. Keil (Eds). The Globalizing Cities Reader (pp 198-204). Abingdon: Routledge.

Stephens, M., Tong, L., Hale, S., and Graham, M. 2018. Misogyny, Twitter, and the Rural Voter. In Watrel, R. H., Weichelt, R., Davidson, F. M., Heppen, J., Fouberg, E. H., Archer, J. C., Morrill, R. L., Shelley, F. M., Martis, K. C. (Eds). Atlas of the 2016 Elections (pp. 55-57). New York: Rowman & Littlefield. 55-57.

Graham, M. 2018. Rethinking the Geoweb and Big Data: Future Research Directions. In J. Thatcher, J. Eckert, and A. Shears. (Eds).  Thinking Big Data in Geography: New Regimes, New Research (pp. 231-236). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.

Media outreach

Ojanperä, S. (2019, July 8). Transforming African economies through digitalizationThe Policy and Internet Blog.

Anwar, M. A. (2019, May 26). Most call centre jobs are a dead end for South Africa’s youth. The Conversation.

Dittus, M., and Graham, M. (2018, September 11). To reduce inequality, Wikipedia needs to start paying editors. Wired.

Anwar, M.A. (2018, Aug 8). How Marx predicted the worst effects of the gig economy more than 150 years ago. The New Statesman.

Wood, A. J. and Graham, M. (2018, Aug 8). Can African and Asian workers challenge exploitation in the gig economy? New Internationalist.

Graham, M. (2018, Mar 12). The UK universities strike is the frontline of the gig economy fight. Wired.

Graham, M. (2018, Jan 29). The Rise of the Planetary Labour Market. New Statesman. (republished in Technosphere, The Invisible Worker, the RSA’s Field Guide to the Future of Work)

Graham, M., and Sengupta, A. (2017, Oct 5). We’re all connected now, so why is the internet so white and western? The Guardian.

Friederici, N. (2017, July). Africa’s Digital Revolution: A Researcher’s Perspective. Afridigest.

Ojanperä, S. and Sutcliffe, D. (2017, June 22). How ready is Africa to join the Knowledge Economy?. The Policy and Internet Blog.

Ojanperä, S. and Graham, M. (2017, June 6). Africa’s digital knowledge economy worrying. SciDev.Net.

Friederici, N and Sutcliffe, D. (2017, March 30). Why we shouldn’t believe the hype about the Internet “creating” development. The Policy and Internet Blog.

Friederici, N. (2016, December 23). How the internet is failing to drive economic development where promised. The Conversation.

Anwar, M.A. (2016). Low income and high competition: digital jobs in neoliberal age, Union Solidarity International.

Graham, M., and Foster, C. (2016, January). Geographies of Information Inequality in Sub-Saharan AfricaThe African Technopolitan. 5 78-85.

Graham, M., Mann, L., Friederici, N. and Waema, T. (2016, January). Growing the Kenyan Business Process Outsourcing SectorThe African Technopolitan. 5 93-95

Graham, M. (2015, September, 15). Digital work signals a global race to the bottom. SciDev.Net.

Working papers

Friederici, N., & Graham, M. (2018). The Bounded Opportunities of Digital Enterprises in Global Economic Peripheries (SSRN Scholarly Paper No. ID 3249499). Rochester, NY: Social Science Research Network.

Responses to government consultations

Wood, A.J. and Graham, M. (2018) The government consultation on employment classification and control: a response. Response to the UK Government open consultation on employment status. Feb 7, 2018.

Wood, A., Graham, M., Anwar, M. A., Ramizo, G. 2017. Minimum wages on online labour platforms. Oxford Internet Institute.





The following provides some background on the research themes and approach:

Background reading

Graham, M. 2015. Contradictory Connectivity: Spatial Imaginaries and Techno-Mediated Positionalities in Kenya’s Outsourcing Sector. Environment and Planning A. (in press).

Graham, M., Andersen, C., and Mann, L. 2015. Geographies of Connectivity in East Africa: Trains, Telecommunications, and Technological Teleologies. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers (forthcoming).

Graham, M and De Sabbata, S. 2015 Mapping Information Wealth and Poverty: The Geography of Gazetteers. Environment and Planning A (in press).

Mann, L and Graham, M. 2016 The Domestic Turn: Business Process Outsourcing and the Growing Automation of Kenyan Organisations. Journal of Development Studies 52:4, 530-548, DOI: 10.1080/00220388.2015.1126251. (pre-publication version here)

Graham, M., Hogan, B., Straumann, R. K., and Medhat, A. 2014. Uneven Geographies of User-Generated Information: Patterns of Increasing Informational Poverty. Annals of the Association of American Geographers. 104(4). 746-764. (pre-publication version here)

Graham, M. 2014. The Virtual Dimension. In Global City Challenges: debating a concept, improving the practice. eds. M. Acuto and W. Steele. London: Palgrave. (in press).

Graham, M. 2014. The Knowledge Based Economy and Digital Divisions of Labour. In Companion to Development Studies, 3rd edition, eds V. Desai, and R. Potter. Hodder. 189-195. .

Graham, M and T. Shelton 2013. Geography and the future of big data, big data and the future of geography. Dialogues in Human Geography 3(3) 255-261.

Graham, M and M. Zook. 2013. Augmented Realities and Uneven Geographies: Exploring the Geo-linguistic Contours of the Web. Environment and Planning A 45(1) 77-99.

Wilson, M and M. Graham. 2013. Guest Editorial: Situating Neogeography. Environment and Planning A 45(1) 3-9.

Graham, M. 2013. Geography/Internet: Ethereal Alternate Dimensions of Cyberspace or Grounded Augmented Realities? The Geographical Journal 179(2) 177-182.

Graham, M., M. Zook., and A. Boulton. 2013. Augmented Reality in the Urban Environment: contested content and the duplicity of code. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers.38(3), 464-479.

Graham, M., S. Hale & M. Stephens. 2011. Geographies of the World’s KnowledgeConvoco! Edition.

Graham, M., S. Hale & M. Stephens. 2011. Eine Geographie Des Wissens Der WeltConvoco! Edition.

Graham, M. 2011. Wiki Space: Palimpsests and the Politics of Exclusion. In Critical Point of View: A Wikipedia Reader. Eds. Lovink, G. and Tkacz, N. Amsterdam: Institute of Network Cultures, 269-282.

Graham, M. and M. Zook. 2011. Visualizing Global Cyberscapes: Mapping User Generated PlacemarksJournal of Urban Technology. 18(1), 115-132.

Graham, M. 2010. Neogeography and the Palimpsests of PlaceTijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie. 101(4), 422-436.